Rogerson – who has made 71 appearances for the Exiles – will be supported in the role by Nick Phipps and Paddy Jackson, who complete the leadership group.
The halfback duo, who have made 40 appearances each for London Irish, continue in their roles from last season.
Rogerson expressed his delight at being given the captain’s armband for the new campaign, commenting: “It’s a huge honour to be named captain of this fantastic Club.
“I was fortunate enough to be part of the leadership group last season and those experiences will I’m sure stand me in really good stead for the campaign ahead.
“We’re lucky that we’ve got a great group of men here, and myself, Nick and Paddy know we’ll have the full backing of the group throughout the season, which can only serve us well as we look to keep on improving as a squad.”
London Irish Director of Rugby, Declan Kidney, added: “We believe that in Matt, Nick and Paddy we’ve got a very strong and experienced leadership group for the upcoming season.
“Matt showed his leadership qualities in abundance last year when he skippered the side, so we’re delighted he has agreed to lead us once again this season.
“Needless to say, it’s a collective when it comes to leadership, and everyone plays their part – from the players to the coaches and the rest of the staff – but each of the three players brings different strengths that will help us continue to progress over the course of the campaign.”